The history of the automobile industry, which most historians consider started around 1900, is also the history of the twentieth century. Learn about the growth of this important sector of the U.S. economy.
History of the Automobile Industry by Decade
Several important milestones have helped to shape the modern automobile industry. When you examine the historical context of the auto industry, it's easy to see that this major force of the U.S. economy has weathered many ups and downs over the years. Recent events like the auto industry slowdown, globalization of vehicle manufacturing, and car companies filing for bankruptcy are only a few of the many challenges faced by the auto industry in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.
Before 1900: The Auto Industry Begins
Prior to 1900, the automobile was really a novelty item, not yet a major force that represented an industry. While many developments contributed to the birth of the modern automobile, most automotive history buffs and the Library of Congress credit German inventor Karl Benz with creating the first modern automobile. The three-wheeled "Motorwagen," first created by Benz in 1886, became the first production automobile. Benz made several improvements in the Motorwagen, which eventually featured four wheels, a fuel tank, and rear brakes.
1900s: Cars Are Marketed to the Average Family
During the first few years of the twentieth century, automobiles had a fairly limited audience. Because they were expensive and time consuming to produce, most cars were too costly for the general public. However, Colorado State University reports that between 1904 and 1908, 241 different firms began producing cars aimed at the American consumer. In 1908, Ford Motor Company created the Model T, the first car aggressively marketed to the average family. By widening the sales base for the automobile, Ford did a great deal to create an industry for cars and car products.
1910s: The Assembly Line Lowers Car Prices
The Model T, which was originally built individually, was the first car to be mass-produces on the assembly line. When Henry Ford invented the assembly line in 1913, he was able to make the Model T even more affordable and accessible. By 1918, Bryant University reports that half of American car consumers owned Model Ts. Meanwhile, William C. Durant established General Motors in 1908, combining Buick, Oakland, and Oldsmobile. Later, he added Cadillac and Chevrolet. The Dodge brothers, both bicycle builders, created the four-cylinder Dodge Model 30 in 1914.
1920s: The Automobile Takes Off
The roaring 20s were a time of great growth for the auto industry, as more and more consumers bought their first car. The Chrysler Corporation was started in 1925, and many other small car companies began during this decade. By 1929, the year of the stock market crash that began the Great Depression, car companies were producing and selling 5.3 million vehicles a year according to the University of Michigan.
1930s: Sales Slow During the Depression
The Great Depression hit the car industry hard, according to the GM Heritage Center. Many automotive historians estimate that up to half of all car companies failed during the 1930s. At the start of the Great Depression, car companies were mostly small and specialized. By the end of the decade, they had been consolidated into larger, stronger corporations. There was less specialization, but the "Big Three" emerged as an important force. The Great Depression was also an important time for organized labor. Auto companies were laying off workers, and there were increased demands on the workers who remained employed. Amid these tensions, organizers created the United Auto Workers Union (UAW) in 1935. The union would play a major role in the auto industry from that time onward.
1940s: Auto Industry Changes During World War II
World War II helped the American economy emerge from the Great Depression, and prompted growth in the auto industry. According to 1940s.org, the government shut down all the major car factories in 1942 and converted existing stock for use by the armed services. Consumers could buy cars, which were heavily rationed, if they could demonstrate significant need. During the period when new vehicle production was frozen, many companies began to create vehicles for the armed forces, leading to great technological advancements.
1950s: Freeways Mean More Cars for Americans
After the end of World War II, Americans began a great love affair with the automobile. The freeway network, first begun in the 1920s, grew dramatically during the 1950s. Cars were a permanent part of the American way of life. According to PBS, the 1950s saw cars with innovative new technologies and rocket-inspired designs. The American public was buying more cars than ever before.
1960s: Carmakers Focus on Safety
In the 1960s, the auto industry focused on making safer vehicles that could meet the needs of the modern consumer according to Bryant University. In 1964, Studebaker-Packard was the first company to introduce seat belts as standard equipment on all of its vehicles. In addition to safety, car buyers of this era expected vehicles to be powerful and spacious, and fuel economy was not a major concern.
1970s: Oil Crisis Forces Temporarily Improved Fuel Economy
In the 1970s, a major oil crisis forced automakers to create vehicles that were more fuel-efficient. According to Live Science, 20 percent of gas stations in 1974 had no gas to sell to consumers. This focus on gas mileage wouldn't last long, however. When the oil embargo ended, carmakers returned to producing fast, powerful vehicles.
1980s and Beyond: Car Production Goes Global
After the 1980s, the most significant impact of the growth of the global auto industry was the influence of globalization. The high demand for vehicles, combined with the low cost of skilled workers in countries like China and India, led to a situation where manufacturers in those countries could produce cars at a fraction of the cost of unionized U.S. manufacturers. Automakers could then export those less expensive vehicles to developed countries across the world. According to a 2009 Duke University report on the auto industry, in 1975, 80 percent of global auto production came out of seven countries. By 2005, 80 percent of global production came from 11 countries, representing a widening of the playing field and a significant growth in global competition.
Recent Auto Industry History
During the first few years of the new millennium, car companies catered to consumers who expected powerful vehicles. The sport utility vehicle (SUV) was king, and it was easy for consumers to obtain credit to purchase one of these expensive automobiles. However, in 2008, a major economic downturn prompted banks to tighten financing requirements. Fewer people could afford to buy an expensive vehicle. At the same time, fuel became more expensive. In the summer of 2008, record fuel prices caused many consumers to sell their large vehicles and buy smaller, more efficient cars. Hybrids and gas-sipping compacts now ruled the road. As the recession lifted, this focus on fuel efficiency and practicality remained. This trend is expected to affect the auto industry in years to come.
Adjusting to the Consumer's Needs
Throughout history, the automobile industry has shown a remarkable ability to adjust to the changing times. Although manufacturers have come and gone over the last century, the industry has focused on creating cars that meet the needs of the consumer.